Subscribe   Contact   

Twitter       Facebook  

About         Archives






Powered by Squarespace

Support BW!

Racist Suspect Watch

free your mind!

Cress Welsing: The Definition of Racism White Supremacy

Dr. Blynd: The Definition of Racism

Anon: What is Racism/White Supremacy?

Dr. Bobby Wright: The Psychopathic Racial Personality

The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation and Racism (White Supremacy)

What is the First Step in Counter Racism?

Genocide: a system of white survival

The Creation of the Negro

The Mysteries of Melanin

'Racism is a behavioral system for survival'

Fear of annihilation drives white racism

Dr. Blynd: The Definition of Caucasian

Where are all the Black Jurors? 

The War Against Black Males: Black on Black Violence Caused by White Supremacy/Racism

Brazen Police Officers and the Forfeiture of Freedom

White Domination, Black Criminality

Fear of a Colored Planet Fuels Racism: Global White Population Shrinking, Less than 10%

Race is Not Real but Racism is

The True Size of Africa

What is a Nigger? 

MLK and Imaginary Freedom: Chains, Plantations, Segregation, No Longer Necessary ['Our Condition is Getting Worse']

Chomsky on "Reserving the Right to Bomb Niggers." 

A Goal of the Media is to Make White Dominance and Control Over Everything Seem Natural

"TV is reversing the evolution of the human brain." Propaganda: How You Are Being Mind Controlled And Don't Know It.

Spike Lee's Mike Tyson and Don King

"Zapsters" - Keeping what real? "Non-white People are Actors. The Most Unrealistic People on the Planet"

Black Power in a White Supremacy System

Neely Fuller Jr.: "If you don't understand racism/white supremacy, everything else that you think you understand will only confuse you"

The Image and the Christian Concept of God as a White Man

'In order for this system to work, We have to feel most free and independent when we are most enslaved, in fact we have to take our enslavement as the ultimate sign of freedom'

Why do White Americans need to criminalize significant segments of the African American population?

Who Told You that you were Black or Latino or Hispanic or Asian? White People Did

Malcolm X: "We Have a Common Enemy"


Deeper than Atlantis

DOJ drops Facist request for IP addresses from Trump resistance site

The Hill 

The Department of Justice (DOJ) is dropping its controversial request for visitor IP addresses related to an anti-Trump website. 

The government said in a brief released Tuesday that it has "no interest" in the 1.3 million IP addresses related to the website It says it is solely focused on information that could constitute evidence related to criminal rioting on Inauguration Day. 

“The Warrant — like the criminal investigation — is singularly focused on criminal activity,” the reply brief states. “It will not be used for any other purpose.” 

Privacy and civil liberties advocates were up in arms last week when the web hosting company DreamHost publicized a July 12 search warrant for information related to, which was used to organize protests on Inauguration Day. 

DreamHost said complying with the request would amount to handing over roughly 1.3 million visitor IP addresses and other information about visitors to the site.

Lawyers for DreamHost opposed the warrant, arguing it raised First and Fourth Amendment concerns. 

“In essence, the Search Warrant not only aims to identify the political dissidents of the current administration, but attempts to identify and understand what content each of these dissidents viewed on the website,” the company’s lawyers said in a legal argument opposing the request.

In response, the U.S. attorney’s office in Washington, D.C., on Monday moved to amend the search warrant to DreamHost so that it specifies that the company should not disclose records that constitute HTTP request and error logs related to the website 

“What the government did not know when it obtained the Warrant — what it could not have reasonably known — was the extent of visitor data maintained by DreamHost that extends beyond the government’s singular focus in this case of investigating the planning, organization, and participation in the January 20, 2017, riot,” the reply brief states.  

The modified attachment to the search warrant also states that information requested from DreamHost should be limited to all records and information from between July 1, 2016, and Jan. 20, 2017. This information does not include content of unpublished draft publications for the website or records that constitute HTTP request and error logs that would reveal the IP addresses.

The brief also specifies that the information is being requested in connection with the ongoing investigation into the rioting that occurred on Inauguration Day. More than 200 people have been indicted on rioting charges related to the protests. 

“The government values and respects the First Amendment right of all Americans to participate in peaceful political protests and to read protected political expression online. This Warrant has nothing to do with that right,” the government states in the reply brief.

“The Warrant is focused on evidence of the planning, coordination and participation in a criminal act — that is, a premeditated riot. The First Amendment does not protect violent, criminal conduct such as this.” 

A lawyer for DreamHost celebrated the development as a win in a statement Tuesday evening, but said that the company still has First and Fourth Amendments concerns that it plans to address in a separate filing and at an upcoming hearing. 

"The government has now withdrawn entirely its unlawful and highly problematic request for any data relating to the visitors of the website and any unpublished data subject to the Privacy Protection Act," said Raymond Aghaian, the DreamHost counsel. "This is a tremendous win for DreamHost, its users and the public. There remains, unfortunately, other privacy and First and Fourth Amendment issues with the search warrant."

The government is asking the Superior Court of D.C. to compel DreamHost to produce the information requested in the warrant. A hearing on the issue has been schedule for Thursday morning before Chief Judge Robert Morin.


Congressional Black Caucus Tells Trump to Cancel the HBCU summit


The White House has no plans to reschedule its conference for Historically Black Colleges and Universities scheduled for next month, despite calls from lawmakers and other leaders to postpone the event.


Rep. Cedric Richmond (D-La.), chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus, slammed the Trump administration in a call with reporters on Monday, noting that nothing has changed since HBCU leaders went to the White House in February.

“They brought all those HBCUs to town. They took a picture in the Oval Office and then they did nothing,” said Richmond. “If you look at President Trump’s budget he has a number of actions in it that actually hurt HBCUs.”

Instead of a conference, Richmond called for “substantive policies” to help HBCUs.

“I don’t think you need a conference in D.C. in order to do that,” Richmond told reporters. Further, he said, “This White House is not serious about improving our HBCUs, our institutions of advancement.”


President Trump signed an executive order in February establishing a White House Initiative on HBCUs. But despite fanfare surrounding the order and the White House-HBCUs listening sessions (at which there was “very little listening,” according to a subsequent blog post by Dillard University President Walter M. Kimbrough), no progress has been made, and Trump has not yet assigned someone to be in charge of the initiative.

The Chronicle of Higher Education reported last month that the Trump administration is struggling to find someone willing to lead the effort. A spokesperson for the White House reportedly told the outlet that there are several finalists in the running for the position.

Meanwhile, Trump’s budget released in March proposed a 13.5 percent budget cut for the Education Department, going from $68.2 billion in 2017 to $59 billion in 2018. HBCUs and the Pell Grant Program were promised no additional funding, and the Pell Grant was set to lose its $3.9 billion reserve fund. Various programs that provide funding for students from low-income and disadvantaged backgrounds to attend school were scheduled for severe budget cuts or eliminated entirely.

Johnny Taylor, president and CEO of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, suggested in a letter to White House officials that substantive action be taken rather than hosting a conference, according to HBCU Digest.

“If the event is postponed, we request that the administration use the intervening period to hire an executive director of the White House Initiative on HBCUs and appointing the membership of the President’s Advisory Board on HBCUs; these appointments are necessary first steps for this administration to show its commitment to advancing the HBCU agenda,” the publication reported the letter as saying.

Citing “recent events” and inaction from the White House regarding HBCUs, U.S. Rep. Alma Adams (D-N.C.), chair of the North Carolina Legislative Black Caucus Foundation, said in a press release the event should not take place yet:

“Earlier this month, my colleagues and I asked the administration for an update on their progress regarding HBCUs. In February, the president signed an executive order outlining greater investments and additional resources for HBCUs. It has become painstakingly clear that these promises are not being kept. In this current environment, and with zero progress made on any of their priorities, it would be highly unproductive to ask HBCU presidents to come back to Washington.”

Adams did not explicitly mention Charlottesville in her statement. Following the violent rally that left a 32-year-old counter-protester dead at the hands of a 20-year-old white supremacist, Trump insisted there were “very fine people” on the neo-Nazi side of the rally and described violence “on both sides.”

According to Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, Lezli Baskerville, president and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, directly addressed Trump’s remarks after Charlottesville in a letter to HBCU leaders.

Baskerville “made it clear that President Trump’s response to the ‘national disgrace that was Charlottesville and the false equivalency he made between the Nazis/white supremacists and those who opposed them’ have many people questioning his competence as president,” the publication reported.

Omarosa Manigault, director of communications for the Office of Public Liaison for the president, confirmed in a statement to BuzzFeed News that the conference would go as planned.

“President Trump’s commitment to the HBCU community remains strong and unwavering,” Manigault told the outlet. “Registration is currently at capacity and we are looking forward to welcoming HBCU presidents, students, and guests.”

“Though Manigault-Newman’s statement indicated that the White House would roll out announcements on the board and advisory committee during the conference, a source advising the White House on HBCUs said he’s talked to ‘multiple people’ in HBCU circles who have privately slammed Trump’s comments with disgust,” BuzzFeed reported.


The conference is scheduled for Sept. 17-19 in Arlington, Virginia.



Under Trump, white evangelicals show their true racist colors


The statistics tell one story: 81% of white evangelicals voted for Donald Trump. The deafening silence from leaders of the religious right in the wake of the neo-Nazi violence in Charlottesville, Va., points to an even larger one, which places racism at the very heart of the movement.

On the face of it, evangelical support for Trump is anomalous. How can a movement ostensibly concerned about “family values” support a twice-divorced, thrice-married man who said that his “personal Vietnam” was avoiding sexually transmitted diseases? How could evangelicals vote for someone who flaunted his infidelities and who boasted about his tawdry behavior toward women?

The standard rejoinder is that evangelicals were so concerned about abortion and, therefore, judicial appointments that they were prepared to ignore Trump’s indiscretions to advance the one cause — opposition to abortion — that lay at the core of their political movement. That argument collapses, however, on historical examination.

Several evangelical leaders and evangelical organizations applauded the 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision. The late Paul Weyrich, architect of the religious right, was emphatic that abortion had nothing whatsoever to do with the genesis of evangelical political activism in the 1970s, a sentiment echoed by other conservative leaders, including Richard Viguerie and Grover Norquist. [MORE]


UN condemns Donald Trump for not 'unequivocally rejecting racist violent events' in Charlottesville

The Independent 

The United Nations has criticised Donald Trump for failing to "unequivocally and unconditionally reject and condemn racist hate speech and crimes in Charlottesville" and throughout the US.

“There should be no place in the world for racist white supremacist ideas or any similar ideologies that reject the core human rights principles of human dignity and equality," the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination said.

While the committee's statement stopped short of criticising the US President by name, it said it was calling on the US Government, as well as high-level politicians and public officials, “to address the root causes of the proliferation of such racist manifestations.” [MORE]


Charlottesville: United Nations warns US over 'alarming' racism


A UN committee charged with tackling racism has issued an “early warning” over conditions in the US and urged the Trump administration to “unequivocally and unconditionally” reject discrimination.

The warning specifically refers to events last week in Charlottesville, Virginia, where the civil rights activist Heather Heyer was killed when a car rammed into a group of people protesting against a white nationalist rally.

Such statements are usually issued by the United Nations committee on the elimination of racial discrimination (Cerd) over fears of ethnic or religious conflict. In the past decade, the only other countries issued with early warnings have been Burundi, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Kyrgyzstan and Nigeria.

The United States has been warned under the procedure in the past when Cerd raised the issue of land rights conflicts with the Western Shoshone indigenous peoples in 2006. [MORE]


Charlottesville Episode on VICE News: Race and Terror 


Dick Gregory RIP

From [NYTimes] Dick Gregory, the pioneering black satirist who transformed cool humor into a barbed force for civil rights in the 1960s, then veered from his craft for a life devoted to protest and fasting in the name of assorted social causes, health regimens and conspiracy theories, died Saturday in Washington. He was 84.

Mr. Gregory’s son, Christian Gregory, who announced his death on social media, said more details would be released in the coming days. Mr. Gregory had been admitted to a hospital on Aug. 12, his son said in an earlier Facebook post. 

Some of his lines became classics, like the one about a restaurant waitress in the segregated South who told him, “We don’t serve colored people here,” to which Mr. Gregory replied: “That’s all right, I don’t eat colored people. Just bring me a whole fried chicken.” Lunch-counter sit-ins, central to the early civil rights protests, did not always work out as planned. “I sat in at a lunch counter for nine months,” he said. “When they finally integrated, they didn’t have what I wanted.” [MORE]


Rep. Gutiérrez arrested at White House immigration rally commemorating the 5th anniversary of DACA


Rep. Luis Gutiérrez (D-Ill.) and about 30 other protesters were arrested Tuesday outside the White House during a rally commemorating the fifth anniversary of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program.

Gutiérrez, a vocal advocate for immigrant rights, was arrested after he and other protesters sat on the White House sidewalk. The rally was being held at Lafayette Square across Pennsylvania Avenue.

Doug Rivlin, a spokesman for Gutiérrez, said the congressman was taken by U.S. Park Police, who have jurisdiction over the area surrounding the White House. Those arrested Tuesday were taken to Park Police headquarters in Anacostia Park, Rivlin said. [MORE]


Racist Maine Governor: 'Removing monuments to slavery is just like destroying 9/11 Memorial'


On the same morning President Trump unequivocally threw his support behind preserving monuments to treason and slavery, Maine Governor Paul LePage (R) equated removing Confederate monuments with destroying the 9/11 Memorial in New York City.

During an interview with a Maine radio station, LePage asserted those who want to remove Confederate monuments “don’t even know the history of this country.”

“Listen, whether we like it or not, this is what our history is,” he added, ignoring that the Confederacy was a different country altogether. “It’s just like going to New York City and taking down the monument to those who perished in 9/11 — it will come to that.”

You can listen to the audio here: [MORE]

The 9/11 Memorial is a tribute to the victims of the terror attacks that took place that day in 2001, whereas Confederate statutes honor traitors who fought for slavery. So LePage’s analogy would make more sense if the 9/11 Memorial featured a statue of Osama bin Laden.

During other parts of Thursday’s interview, LePage echoed Trump’s “both sides” criticism of not just the white supremacists who gathered in Virginia over the weekend, but also those who gathered to counterprotest.

“I condemn both sides. I think they’re disgusting — both sides,” LePage said. “They went there with the intent of inciting violence, and the thing that nobody wants to talk about is two law enforcement officers were trying to do their jobs and they didn’t get home that night to their families, as [well as] this young lady who was killed. That was disgusting — there’s not place for either of those groups in this country.”

LePage was referring to the deaths of two Virginia state police officers who died on Saturday when their helicopter, which was circling above the white supremacist rally and counterprotests in Charlottesville, crashed. There’s no evidence any foul play was involved.

On the other hand, the “young lady” LePage referred to was 32-year-old Heather Heyer. Heyer, who was in Charlottesville to demonstrate against white supremacy, was murdered by an alleged Nazi sympathizer who ran over a group of counterprotesters with his car.


Once Again, Rather Than Deleting Terrorist Propaganda, YouTube Deletes Evidence Of War Crimes


It really was just last week that we were discussing the problems of telling platforms like YouTube to remove videos concerning "violent extremism" because it's often tough to tell the difference between videos that many people think are okay and ones that those same people think are not. But in that post, we also linked back to a story from 2013 in which -- after getting pressure from then Senator Joe Lieberman -- YouTube started removing "terrorist" videos, and in the process deleted a channel of people documenting atrocities in Syria.

It appears that history is now repeating itself, because YouTube is getting some grief because (you guessed it), it's effort to keep extremist content off its platform has resulted in deleting a channel that was documenting evidence of war crimes in Syria.

YouTube is facing criticism after a new artificial intelligence program monitoring "extremist" content began flagging and removing masses of videos and blocking channels that document war crimes in the Middle East.

Middle East Eye, the monitoring organisation Airwars and the open-source investigations site Bellingcat are among a number of sites that have had videos removed for breaching YouTube's Community Guidelines.

This comes just days after YouTube announced it was expanding its program to remove "terror content" from its platform -- including better "accuracy." Oops.

Again, there are no easy answers here. You can certainly understand why no platform wants to host actual terrorism propaganda. And platforms should have the right to host or decline to host whatever content they want. The real issue is that we have more and more people -- including politicians -- demanding that these platforms must regulate, filter and moderate the content on their platform to remove "bad" speech. But in the over 4 years I've been asking this question since that last time we wrote about the shut down of the channel documenting atrocities, no one's explained to me how these platforms can distinguish videos celebrating atrocities from those documenting atrocities. And this gets even more complicated when you realize: sometimes those are the same videos. And sometimes, letting terrorists or others post the evidence of what they're doing, people are better able to stop that activity.

There is plenty of "bad" content out there, but the kneejerk reaction that we need to censor it and take it down ignores how frequently that is likely to backfire -- as it clearly did in this case.


HBO Show ‘Confederate’ Seems to be on Hold After Charlottesville, Tweets Issued Were Not Actually From Directors 


In light of the violence that erupted in Charlottesville, Virginia after a white nationalist rally organized to protest the removal of a General Robert E. Lee statue, Game of Thrones showrunners D.B. Weiss and David Benioff — whose upcoming project Confederate, an alt-history exploring what America would look like if the South had won the Civil War, has sparked considerable controversy — released separate and thoughtful statements in response to recent news events.

“Let’s keep the battles and bloodshed over fallen generals to the fantasy shows. Be safe America,” Weiss tweeted. A few hours later, Benioff added: “We are saddened by what’s transpired and as artists we are going to take these recent events into consideration as we move forward with Confederate.”  

The pair later clarified their tweets in an interview with Vulture. “Let me be clear: what happened on Saturday couldn’t be further from what we are envisioning for our project,” Benioff said. “We want our show to encourage the heroes of today, not empathize with the villains of our past.”

These sentiments are bold, thoughtful, and unfortunately completely invented.

In reality, Weiss and Benioff — who don’t actually have Twitter accounts — have been noticeably silent in the wake of the Charlottesville protests. The two showrunners haven’t taken any steps to address how recent news developments might influence their upcoming project, which got a lot of pushback even before the events of last weekend.

“It’s at their own risk that they’re being so silent,” Jamie Broadnax, editor-in-chief of the pop culture website Black Girl Nerds and one of the critics leading the #NoConfederate hashtag that has caught on like wildfire, said in an interview with ThinkProgress.

Before neo-Nazis invaded Charlottesville, Weiss told Vulture, “One of the strengths of science fiction is that it can show us how this history is still with us in a way no strictly realistic drama ever could.” The irony in that now is astounding. Perhaps a realistic drama couldn’t scratch the surface, but reality certainly did.

“A lot of the storyline that their show, so far as what’s been reported — this alternate history of what the South would have looked like if it won — we’re seeing play out right before our eyes,” Broadnax said. “People have been joking on social media, but it’s really the truth, that we’ve already seen episode one of Confederate.”

HBO itself has only tepidly weighed in, releasing a statement to the New York Times on Monday that reiterated its support of the project.

“We support everybody’s right to express an opinion but the suggestion of irresponsibility on our part is simply undeserved,” the network said. “HBO has a long history of championing intelligent storytelling and we will approach this project with the same level of thoughtfulness that has always defined our programming. We recognize the sensitivity of this project and will treat it with the respect that it deserves. Our creative partners should be given time to develop the series rather than face prejudgment.” [MORE]


Black Congressman Sanford Bishop has ties to firm charged in federal corruption probe


A political consulting company that U.S. Rep. Sanford Bishop hired to lead his re-election campaign in 2014 was charged by the Justice Department last week with conspiring to launder money.

 The Albany Democrat, who has represented Georgia’s 2nd U.S. House District for 24 years, spent more than $95,000 on the services of the Macon-based Positiventures Initiative LLC in 2014, according to federal campaign finance filings. Positiventures is an advocacy group formed to fight poverty in struggling west and middle Georgia communities.

Bishop said the group provided him with his campaign manager Kimberlyn Carter for the 2014 election cycle and also constructed and installed large wooden campaign signs throughout the district, which encompasses a 29-county swath of Southwest Georgia and includes portions of Macon.

The company was named in a federal corruption probe that drew big headlines in middle Georgia when it was announced last week. [MORE]


Merck CEO Ken Frazier: Application of Death Penalty Not "Fair and Consistent"


Merck Chief Executive Officer Kenneth C. Frazier resigned from the president’s American Manufacturing Council on August 14, saying “[a]s CEO of Merck and as a matter of personal conscience, I feel a responsibility to take a stand against intolerance and extremism.” In a statement posted on Merck’s Twitter account, Frazier said: "Our country's strength stems from its diversity and the contributions made by men and women of different faiths, races, sexual orientations and political beliefs. America's leaders must honor our fundamental values by clearly rejecting expressions of hatred, bigotry and group supremacy, which run counter to the American ideal that all people are created equal." It was not the first time that Frazier, the only African-American CEO of a major pharmaceutical company, has spoken out on matters of social justice. Following his successful pro bono representation of James Willie "Bo" Cochran, a black, Alabama death-row prisoner wrongly convicted of the murder of a white grocery store manager, Frazier wrote that the case showed him that "there can be no fair and consistent application of the death penalty under the current system." Frazier undertook Cochran's representation while a partner at the Philadelphia law firm, Drinker, Biddle & Reath, and remained on the case after joining Merck. Cochran won a new trial after Frazier and his team showed that, in two prior trials, the prosecutor had systematically removed 31 of the 35 potential black jurors because he believed they were less "reliable" and more likely to acquit black defendants. Frazier initially doubted Cochran's proclamation of innocence: witnesses inside the store described the suspect as a black man and, as police converged on the scene, heard a gunshot coming from a nearby trailer park, less than one mile from where Cochran was found with a gun and cash. But Frazier discovered during the post-conviction proceedings that there was no physical evidence against his client, the only bullet recovered near the scene did not match Cochran's gun, and the fatal bullet could not be tested because police had cut it out of the victim's body and removed it before delivering the body to the medical examiner. "He was convicted," explains Frazier, "despite evidence suggesting an accidental police shooting and cover-up." Even though the state only had circumstantial evidence against him, Cochran was tried three separate times for the killing (the first time, there was a mistrial, and the second time his conviction was reversed on appeal). "Although some maintain the criminal justice system is color-blind," Frazier wrote, "the reality is that race plays a substantial role in the judicial process." In Cochran's retrial, a jury that Frazier says "was not selected primarily on the basis of race" acquitted him in less than an hour. 

(M. Terrill, “Amid corporate career, Merck CEO exonerated man on death row,” CNBC, Aug. 14, 2017; M. Harper, “What You Should Know About Ken Frazier, The CEO Who Just Quit A Trump Advisory Council,” Forbes, Aug. 14, 2017; K. Frazier, "Dying for Representation: Promoting Justice Through Pro Bono Participation," Univ. of Toledo Law Rev., Spring 2004.) See New Voices, Innocence, and Race.


Brooklyn Congresswoman Yvette Clarke Proposes to Re-Name Streets Named for Confederate Generals

Nydaily News

The push to rebrand a pair of Brooklyn streets named for Confederate generals is going to the House.

Brooklyn Congresswoman Yvette Clarke unveiled legislation on Friday that would require the Department of Defense to change the name of any military installation or other property currently named for individuals who fought against the U.S. during the Civil War.

The Democrat has led a recent effort to convince the Army to rename two streets — General Lee Ave. and Stonewall Jackson Drive — at Brooklyn’s Fort Hamilton, the city’s only active military post.

Both men served at Fort Hamilton before they became leaders in the Confederate Army. [MORE]


Sleeping Democrats lag far behind GOP in 2018 fundraising despite turmoil


Despite the turmoil that Republicans have faced over the past several months, some observers are speculating that the Democrats may still be at a disadvantage in the 2018 midterm elections due to significant gaps in fundraising. 

According to The Hill, the Democratic National Committee, or DNC, raised $38.2 million during the first six months of 2017 which is slightly more than half the amount the $75.4 million their Republican counterparts brought in. 

The report adds, “as of June 30, the RNC has almost $45 million in the bank, while the DNC has just under $7.5 million, along with $3 million in debt.”

There appear to be mounting frustrations as a result, with one Democratic donor telling the publication, “We really should be kicking their a***s. It shouldn’t even be close, considering all hell is breaking loose on their side.” 

The lag has, in part, been attributed to the DNC’s effort to rebuild after selecting new leaders in February. 

The Star-Tribune recently reported that one official, William Hailer, “found the DNC in shambles when he became a senior adviser to the party early this year. Staff levels were at an all-time low, with just three people involved in fundraising. Now the DNC has nearly 30 fundraisers, and [DNC Deputy Chairman, Representative Keith] Ellison and Hailer expect that will boost campaign contributions." [MORE]